<p style="text-align: justify;">Chat GPT, a chatbot launched in November 2022 with abilities for human-like conversations and creativity, made everyone wonder about the power of Artificial Intelligence (AI). </p><p style="text-align: justify;"> </p><h2 style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14pt;">History of AI in Defence</span></h2><p style="text-align: justify;">Research on AI began more than seventy years ago, but three recent enabling developments and their convergence made AI advance with several useful applications and deployments since 2010. </p><p style="text-align: justify;">The enabling trinity is the availability of “big data” sources, advancements in machine learning technologies, and increased computer processing power. </p><p style="text-align: justify;">Several applications with Narrow AI have been developed and are maturing to their full potential. Narrow AI algorithms address specific tasks or problems like image recognition, navigation, video analytics, etc. Most of the current AI applications are in the Narrow AI category. General AI systems will be capable of human-level intelligence across various tasks and may take some time to mature fully. AI was first used in military operations in 1991. </p><p style="text-align: justify;"> </p><h2 style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14pt;">Role of AI in Defence</span> </h2><p style="text-align: justify;">With the ability to perform under unpredictable circumstances, and the ability to perform tasks requiring human-like perception, cognition, and learning, AI systems are bound to transform National security and defence operations sooner than expected. </p><p style="text-align: justify;">AI will empower surveillance and intelligence, information warfare, command and control systems, maintenance operations, to name a few, with never-before capabilities. </p><p style="text-align: justify;">In addition to converting decision support systems to decision-making systems, AI will make ground vehicles, tanks, aircraft, drones, and naval vessels, autonomous or semi-autonomous, bringing in a paradigm shift in defence and military operations. </p><p style="text-align: justify;"> </p><h2 style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14pt;">Government Initiatives </span></h2><p style="text-align: justify;">Convinced by the technological progress and the power of AI, world leaders are taking initiatives to empower their countries with AI systems and secure their countries better in the 21st century. Through Defence AI Project Agency (DAIPA), the government of India has prepared a roadmap for AI-enabled applications development. Indian Government has created Defence AI Council (DAIC) to provide necessary guidance for enabling and effective development of the operating framework, policy level change, and structural support for AI adoption. </p><p style="text-align: justify;">The government is planning to make India an AI hub. A few years back, the Chinese government released a strategy detailing its plan to take the lead in AI by 2030. </p><p style="text-align: justify;">The U.S. has identified artificial intelligence as one of the key technologies for the country that will enable it to fight and win future wars. </p><p style="text-align: justify;">The power of AI and its importance in military operations, National Defence, and security in this century can be summed up in the statement of Russian President Vladimir Putin as “whoever becomes the leader in the field of AI will rule the world.” </p><p style="text-align: justify;"> </p><p style="text-align: justify;"> </p><p> </p><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><em>This article was contributed by our expert <a href="https://www.linkedin.com/in/ivsarma/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">I V Sarma</a></em></span><br /> </p><p> </p><h3><span style="font-size: 18pt;">Frequently Asked Questions Answered by I V Sarma</span></h3><h3> </h3><h2><span style="font-size: 12pt;">1. How is AI likely to impact the future of warfare, and what are some of the scenarios that military strategists and policymakers envision?</span></h2><p>AI will bring a paradigm shift in future warfare. Designing and deploying more effective and efficient battle plans will be facilitated by AI integrated with the military ecosystem, with precise and in-depth analysis of the situation. </p><p>AI will enhance the decision-making capabilities of military leaders for effective battle operations and combat with greater efficiency. Defense services can focus on core functions as AI will help reduce the institutional workload on logistics, maintenance, training, and many routine activities.</p><p>Combat drones and swarms of drones can cause damage to the enemy in an unprecedented manner. They can be controlled from a place far away from the battlefield and unleash destruction using various ammunition. To give specific scenarios is beyond the scope of this brief discussion, but to get an idea, I will give a simple example.</p><p> </p><h2><span style="font-size: 12pt;">2. How can AI and chatbots integrate emerging technologies such as blockchain, 5G, and IoT to create more robust and secure surveillance and intelligence systems?</span></h2><ul><li>Artificial Intelligence (AI) enables machines to make human-like decisions, and blockchain provides tamper-proof security for various applications</li><li>AI can be used to detect and respond to threats, while blockchain technology can ensure the security and integrity of data</li><li>IOT and 5G facilitate data collection and faster transmission</li><li>Integrating these technologies creates more secure and efficient surveillance and intelligent decision-making ecosystems. One example of a significant benefit is in cybersecurity, as the traditional methods of securing systems are fast becoming irrelevant due to new attacks</li><li>Video analysis by AI-powered systems will make threat assessment faster and easier. Many such applications in the surveillance and security domain make it robust and highly intelligent<br /> </li></ul><p> </p><h2><span style="font-size: 12pt;">3. What are some future trends and challenges in using AI for national security, and how can they be addressed to protect national interests and values?</span></h2><p>Applications and challenges from a national security perspective are immense. Applications of AI are advancing and maturing at a rapid pace. Transformative applications of AI are under development to automate weapon systems. The potential to enhance cyber warfare is also very high. Many areas suggested in the article and previous answers will transform how wars are fought.</p><p>Regulations for AI governance will enable control and protection of national security, values, and the development of a thriving, positive AI ecosystem. Due to the use of AI in civilian applications, there is easy access to AI-based tools for non-state actors, which makes it challenging for national security. In addition, there are challenges due to the proliferation of social media and AI becoming an inherent part of social media platforms, enabling the spread of misinformation/disinformation, hate speech, etc.</p><p> </p><h2><span style="font-size: 12pt;">4. How can AI be used to support emergency response and disaster management, and what technologies are being developed in this area?</span></h2><p>AI can contribute to disaster management by improving accuracy and speed in early warning systems. AI and machine learning techniques can analyze vast data available from satellites, weather stations, and social media, learn and predict more accurately than traditional forecasting, which depends on complex mathematical models. More accurate and timely predictions enable authorities to better preparation, warnings, and evacuation before any situation becomes critical.</p><p>In disaster response also, AI can play an important role. For example, AI-powered drones and robots can be deployed to assess damage, search for survivors, and deliver aid to affected areas. AI autonomous systems can operate in hazardous situations dangerous for human rescuers. Various applications for forecasting, disaster management, and strategies for rebuilding infrastructure post-disaster are at advanced stages of development and improvement.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"> </p><p style="text-align: justify;"> </p><p style="text-align: justify;"> </p><p style="text-align: justify;"> </p>
KR Expert - I V SARMA
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