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Aquaculture Technology Developments And Present Scenarios

<p style="text-align: justify;">Aquaculture contributes aquatic animal food for human consumption to fulfil the needs (e.g., fish, crustaceans, and molluscs, but does not include mammals, reptiles, and aquatic plants). It will grow further to meet the future demand.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish, herbivorous and omnivorous pond fishes.&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/un coasted environmental goods and services. Hence, a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics.&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fishery supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in scale and in the economics of integration, and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">In the medium term, the increased output will likely require expansion in new environments, further intensification, and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend toward enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and will significantly contribute to future supplies, at least for the foreseeable future.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Dependence on external feeds (including fish and Shrimp), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production, and policies that support the reducing resource footprints and improving integration could lead to new developments and reverse the decline in some more traditional systems.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Technology, the application of scientific knowledge, has always helped mankind make a better future. Technologies used in aquaculture are also not an exception to it. Rapid development has been observed for the last few decades in aquaculture.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">From very simple techniques to high technology systems, have evolved beautifully. Many old techniques have been modified, and several new methodologies have been developed.&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">But all this evolution has served a common purpose, increasing the productivity and betterment of farmers&rsquo; economy. Solving the problems that the farmers face in fish and Shrimp cultivation; is the only target of all these technologies. It is true that we have successfully addressed many of the problems. In this article, we have discussed how the new innovative technologies used in aquaculture have changed the scenario of fish and shrimp production and the livelihood of the farmers.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Innovations related to reproduction Biotechnological and genetic tools have a huge capacity to increase productivity and enhance the sustainability of the ecosystem.&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">These tools can be the best weapon to provide avenues for improving reproductive success and endangered species growth and survival.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Recently, these technologies have greatly contributed to enhancing growth rates and market size and feed conversion ratios disease resistance, improvement of stress tolerance against extreme environmental conditions and improvement of sterility issues. Specifically, how to handle Biosecurity systems with SOP.&nbsp;</p><h2 style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14pt;">Current Status of Global Scenario</span></h2><p style="text-align: justify;">Global aquaculture has grown dramatically over the past 50 years to around 52.5 million tonnes (68.3 million including aquatic plants) in 2008, worth US$98.5 billion (US$106 billion including aquatic plants) and accounting for around 50 per cent of the world's fish food supply.&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Asia dominates this production, accounting for 89 per cent by volume and 79 per cent by value, with China being the largest producer (32.7 million tonnes in 2008). The rapid growth in this region has been driven by various factors, including pre-existing aquaculture practices, population and economic growth, relaxed regulatory framework and expanding export opportunities.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Aquaculture Production</strong></p><p style="text-align: justify;">Global aquaculture production continued to grow in 2020 amid the worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Aquaculture production consisted of:</p><ul><li style="list-style-type: none;"><ul><li>87.5 million tonnes of aquatic animals, mostly for use as human food.</li><li>35.1 million tonnes of seaweeds and other algae for food and non-food uses.</li><li>700 tonnes of shells and pearls for ornamental use</li></ul></li></ul><p>&nbsp;</p><p><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="" width="673" height="516" /></p><h2><br /><span style="font-size: 14pt;">Employment in Fisheries and Aquaculture</span></h2><p style="text-align: justify;">In 2020, an estimated 58.5 million people were employed in the primary fisheries and aquaculture sector. This numbers have stabilized in the aquaculture sector, whereas the number of fishers has fallen, particularly due to the current trends in Asia.&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Of those directly employed, approximately 21 percent were women, rising to about 50 per cent for those employed full-time in the entire aquatic value chain, including post-harvest activities. Taking in account of dependents, it is estimated that 600 million people rely on the fisheries and aquaculture sector for their livelihoods.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on employment was felt throughout the fisheries and aquaculture value chain. It varied depending on the country and the season as the virus and its variants moved across continents.</p><h2 style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14pt;">Time to Dive Deeper</span></h2><p style="text-align: justify;">Aquatic systems have great potential to support millions of lives and livelihoods and contribute to food security. If positively transformed and expanded, they can meet the twin challenge of feeding a growing population while preserving natural resources and the ecosystems that sustain them.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Blue transformation is a visionary strategy that aims to enhance aquatic food systems role by providing the legal, policy and technical frameworks required to sustain growth and innovation.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Blue transformation proposes a series of actions designed to support resilience in aquatic food systems and ensure fisheries and aquaculture grow sustainably while leaving no one behind, especially food deficit communities and those that depend on the sector. Climate and environment-friendly policy and practices, as well as technological innovations, are critical building blocks for Blue transformation.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><em>T</em><em>his article was contributed by our expert <a href="">N.Inayathullah Neyasudeen</a>&nbsp;</em></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p><h3 style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 18pt;">Frequently Asked Questions Answered by N.Inayathullah Neyasudeen</span></h3><h2 style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">1. What is the future potential for the aquaculture industry?</span></h2><p style="text-align: justify;">Aquaculture has significant potential in helping provide a healthy and sustainable protein source for future populations. However, to reach this potential, a substantial increase in production is required to meet future protein requirements.</p><h2 style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">2. What is the current scenario of the fishing industry in India?</span></h2><p style="text-align: justify;">India is the third largest fish producing country in the world and accounts for 7.96% of the global production. The total fish production during the FY 2020-21 is estimated at 14.73 million metric tonnes. India is also an important fish producer thanks to aquaculture and ranks second in the world after China.</p><h2 style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">3. What are the challenges faced by aquaculture?</span></h2><p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 18.75pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: #1b1d1f;">Some of the problems are pollution, Habitat destruction, overfishing, resource depletion etc.</span></p><p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 18.75pt; text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
KR Expert - Dr. N.Inayathullah Neyasudeen

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