<p>In today’s era resin plays important role in our day-to-day life. </p><p>Now resin application becomes vast from small application like fevikwik to large applications in coating industries. Resins are used in various application like coating industries, ink industries, floor coating, as adhesive, Paints industries, FRP, coil coating etc. </p><p>Generally, resin provides binding properties to materials and these binding properties depends on the right selection of resins. </p><p>For example, if we required chemical, weathering and corrosion resistance then go for epoxy resin, if we look for cost effective resin and not specialty properties then go for alkyd resin. Polyester resins are used for coil coating industries and in marine applications.</p><p>Selection of raw materials also plays an important role in resin properties.</p><p>If we increase oil proportion in alkyd resin, our drying time increases and required stoving applications and if oil proportion is reduced it reduce drying time. </p><p>Resin making is like cooling various delicious dishes in restaurant, according to application and requirement raw material selection should be carried out. </p><p>If we required flexibility then reduce aromatic acid content and add linear acid content and if hardness is required, then increase aromatic acid content. </p><p>For long molecular chain, strong solvent is required, and it gives fast drying and for short molecular chain required diluent solvent and gives slow drying. </p><p>If we require special properties like anti-foaming, leveling, anti-settling then add additives. </p><h2><span style="font-size: 14pt;">Fatty Acid Process or Monoglyceride Process </span></h2><p>Alkyd resin is widely used in various applications due to its low cost and easy process as well as compatibility. </p><p>Alkyd resin is manufactured by monoglyceride process and fatty acid process. Oil is nonpolar and not directly compatible with poly acids so in mono glyceride (MG process) process first of all oil is heated with polyols in presence of catalyst at 220 – 260 deg C to form mono glyceride and makes oil polar. </p><p>This mono glyceride is then reacted with poly acids and form alkyd resin and water as by product. In this process reaction vessel is always cleaned before every MG process due to in compatibility of oil with poly acid, if there are any acid groups is remains present and another mg batch taken then mg will not be clear, and material becomes hazy. This process requires more cycle time and maximum 260 deg C temperature. </p><p>In contrast fatty acid process doesn’t require any cleaning as well as mono glyceride stage, so in fatty acid process mono glyceride stage eliminate which reduce batch cycle time energy saving and generation of washing solvent. </p><p>In fatty acid process oil, polyols, polyacids and process solvent is charged together and heated to 220 – 260 deg C. Once reflux is started, then under total reflux sample is checked for acid value and viscosity to check reaction progress, whether reaction is under progress or are there any deviations. If there are any deviations, then it means there is something wrong in charging. </p><p>In fatty acid around 4-5% process solvent charged along with all the raw materials so that it increases reflux rate and prevent loss of sublimated poly acids by washing condenser and lines. Oil structure contains two parts one is glycerol, and another is fatty acids chain.</p><p>In fatty acid process, oil fatty acids are used instead of pure oil. This fatty acid is obtained by distillation and chemical reaction of vegetable oil. So, oil is separated in fatty acids of oils and glycerol or glycerin. This fatty acid is now becomes polar and so that it is compatible with poly acids and does not form separate layer. </p><p>So finally fatty acid process has many advantages over mono glyceride process like, saving of energy of Monoglyceride stage, reduce batch cycle time, generation of washing solvent and reduce risk of being hazy if mg is not clear. </p><p>Due to these benefits most of alkyd resin formulations are converted from mono glyceride to fatty acid process by many resins industry. Also, alkyd resin manufacturing by fatty acid has better property compared with alkyd resin manufacturing by mono glyceride process.</p><p> </p><p><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><em>This article was contributed by our expert <a href="https://www.linkedin.com/in/hiteshkumar-hedau-65020080/">Hitesh Kumar Hedau </a></em></span></p><p> </p><h3><span style="font-size: 18pt;">Frequently Asked Questions Answered by Hitesh Kumar Hedau </span></h3><h2><span style="font-size: 12pt;">1. How big is the resin market?</span></h2><p>Total 750 billion USD worldwide of resin market </p><h2><span style="font-size: 12pt;">2. Are resin products in demand?</span></h2><p>Yes, resin products are in demand, but now the industry will shift to water base resin instead of the solvent base. </p><h2><span style="font-size: 12pt;">3. What drives resin pricing?</span></h2><p>Resin price depends upon - the complexity of the process, quality of products, availability of products, and market demand. </p><h2><span style="font-size: 12pt;">4. What is the future of the resin manufacturing industry in India?</span></h2><p>The future of the resin industry is very bright because the resin is used everywhere, and now future technology is water base resin to avoid solvent exposure to the environment and heath. </p><p> </p>
KR Expert - Hitesh Kumar Hedau
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