Consumer Discretionary

Vehicle Thermal Management

<p style="text-align: justify;">Vehicle thermal management is gaining increased importance as more vehicle systems require cooling.&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">The challenge involves providing the optimum cooling, which meets the requirement with minimum power consumption, reduced frontal area to reduce aerodynamic drag, and a compact system with minimum weight.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Vehicle terminal management involves:</p><ul style="text-align: justify;"><li>Engine cooling</li><li>Cabin Cooling /HVAC</li><li>HV Battery cooling</li><li>Power electronics cooling &nbsp;</li><li>E-Machine Cooling</li><li>Hydrogen fuel cell thermal management</li></ul><p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Even though EV thermal management has gained more popularity recently, the underlying principles are similar to conventional cooling systems:</p><ul style="text-align: justify;"><li>Air cooled</li><li>Liquid/coolant-cooled with the radiator&nbsp;</li><li>Refrigerant cooling</li></ul><p style="text-align: justify;"><br />The basic cooling system design includes matching the heat rejection to the system's cooling capacity in worst-case conditions.&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Different development stages involve:</p><ul style="text-align: justify;"><li>1D- Simulation</li><li>Design</li><li>3D-Simulation</li><li>Development test in worst-case conditions (RWUP)</li></ul><p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">For a conventional engine, the heat rejection capacity of the radiator should be equal to the sum of the heat rejection of the engine (typically 30% of total energy generated due to burning of fuel) plus heat rejection from other systems like (HVAC, Intercooler, etc).</p><p style="text-align: justify;">For EV vehicle motor, power electrons and HV batter must be maintained at optimum temperature for best performance and durability.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">HV battery cooling is very important in India's current scenario of fire incidents due to higher ambient conditions, harsh drive cycles, and usage profiles.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Major important are:</p><ul style="text-align: justify;"><li>Battery chemistry (NMC, LFP, etc)</li><li>Cooling system design architecture and logic&nbsp;</li><li>Production quality and consistency</li></ul><p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Silicon thermal pads improve heat dissipation, provide good electrical insulation performance, vibration isolation, avoid friction and damage between the cells.&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Hence pad between the tube and the battery avoids short circuits.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="" alt="Battery Pack Cooling" width="385" height="176" /></p><p style="text-align: justify;">Battery Pack Cooling</p><p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">The below layout shows a typical EV thermal management system in which a cooling loop cools the Motor, and power electronics and battery are cooled by another loop cooled by a heat exchanger (HX) cooled by an evaporator of a refrigerant loop.&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Many possible layouts are used in EV thermal management layout.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="" alt="Typical Electric Vehicle Cooling System" width="364" height="260" /></p><p style="text-align: justify;">Typical Electric Vehicle Cooling System</p><p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><em>This article was contributed by our expert <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Vibin Jacob</a></em></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
KR Expert - Vibin Jacob

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